Inicio · Investigación · La ciencia del vino (IV). Por Pedro Martínez Hernández, Propietario de Bodegas BAIGORRI

La ciencia del vino (IV). Por Pedro Martínez Hernández, Propietario de Bodegas BAIGORRI


Siguiendo con los Efectos beneficiosos de los componentes del vino, hoy vamos a comentar, que:

El 10 de julio del 2003 entro en vigor una ley española del vino que, por primera vez, lo califica como alimento. Sigue siendo el producto resultante de la fermentación de la uva, pero se le reconocen propiedades que le confieren la condición de un alimento funcional: su contenido en lípidos o proteínas es imperceptible, sabemos que por cada gramo de alcohol tenemos 9 kcal, pero el vino proporciona muchas sales minerales y vitaminas esenciales para llevar a cabo las necesidades bioquímicas funcionales del organismo. Las enzimas, por ejemplo, llevan en su composición átomos de cobalto o de manganeso que el cuerpo humano debe tomar prestados de la alimentación. Tanto el vino como el aceite de oliva, ambos pilares de  la dieta mediterránea, son, además, muy ricos en polifenoles.

Lo saludable no es un consumo excesivo en momentos determinados, sino un consumo continuado. Los polifenoles, de hecho, se encuentran en prácticamente todas las verduras, frutas y hortalizas y en el vino se encuentran en la piel y en las pepitas (Samarjit, 2007). Su proporción en el vino no llega al 3%, pero son antioxidantes de primera magnitud. Para empezar, protegen al mismo vino contra la oxidación ambiental y evitan que se estropee, pero siguen haciendo lo mismo cuando los incorporamos a nuestro organismo. (Walzem,2008).

El envejecimiento del cuerpo humano transcurre desde la infancia y por mecanismos de oxidación de los tejidos. Principalmente las vitaminas E y C, se encargan de mantener un equilibrio lipo-proteico en la membrana celular y evitan que las células se oxiden. Lamentablemente, nuestros hábitos modernos de alimentación, el tabaco o la contaminación ambiental aportan un exceso de radicales libres que nuestras enzimas no son capaces de combatir, por lo que envejecemos y, en el peor de los casos, las células sufren alteraciones que dan pie a enfermedades como el cáncer o la arteriosclerosis. Se ha demostrado que es mejor consumir medio vaso al día, garantizando un equilibrio antioxidativo permanente, que una botella de de una sola vez al mes, puesto que la oxidación no viene tampoco de golpe, sino a pequeños sorbos.

Podríamos pensar en principio que sería una buena idea, aumentar de forma artificial el número de polifenoles del vino, pero eso, estaría en contra del concepto de lo que es un alimento natural y además, porque el vino no es un medicamento, y no debe alterarse su carácter funcional propio, en sacrificio del sabor o de otras propiedades. Quien requiera resveratrol puede acudir a cualquier oficina de farmacia, pero no convirtamos al vino en un vector de ácidos grasos omega-3, minerales y vitaminas que naturalmente no formen parte de su constitución. Poderse hacer, se puede; pero no se debe, por respecto al vino y a lo que representa
De todo ello podemos resumir que los 3 componentes más importantes del vino tinto son el alcohol, los compuestos fenólicos y los flavonoides y todos ellos ejercen en mayor o menor medida –como iremos viendo-  su carácter cardioprotector y anti-aterogénico  (Samarjit, 2007).




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