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Inicio · Enología · ¿Roble francés o americano? – El secreto de las barricas

¿Roble francés o americano? – El secreto de las barricas

Una barrica, cuba, o tonel es un recipiente de madera utilizado para la crianza de vino. La barrica oxigena el vino lentamente y le aporta textura y aroma para suavizar su sabor. Suelen tener una capacidad de 220 litros. Si es de 225 litros es llamada "barrica bordelesa".
La madera de roble permite suavizar la textura del vino y estabilizarlo. Además, hace que los taninos se polimericen dando una sensación más agradable y redonda en la boca. Otro efecto es que agrega sabor y aroma: a vainilla, coco, chocolate, tostado, humo, tabaco, caramelo, y café según sea el tostado de la madera.
La madera se usa en la fabricación de la mayoría de los vinos tinto y en algunos blancos (como el Chardonnay)
En vinos de guarda, la permanencia en barricas ayuda al vino a evolucionar, gracias a pequeñas cantidades de oxígeno que entran en contacto con el vino.
Los altos precios de las barricas, presupuestos restringidos, altos volúmenes de producción y el uso de estanques de acero inoxidable, han llevado a que el uso de barricas disminuya y se reserve sólo para aquellos casos que lo ameriten. Un producto alternativo a las barricas es el uso de chips, cubitos y duelas de roble que se utilizan para lograr el efecto de una barrica pero a un coste muy inferior.

 

 

Entrevista con Simon Arina, Director Técnico de Bodegas BAIGORRI de Sarah Janes Evans, The Drinks Business:

Sarah Jane Evans: ¿Utilizais roble Americano? ¿Utilizáis roble Francés? ¿O ahora envejecéis los vinos únicamente en roble Francés? ¿Los mezcláis? ¿Cuál es tu impresión sobre el roble Ruso, Europea del Este o España?

Simon Arina: Principalmente utilizamos roble francés, especialmente para nuestros Vinos de Autor. Sólo para nuestro Crianza mezclamos el roble francés con aproximadamente un 10% en roble Americano, porque tiene un perfil más comercial y el consumidor todavía está más acostumbrado a los matices tabaco y vainilla de este tipo de roble.

Hemos hecho algunos tests con barricas de roble Ruso del Cáucaso y Español de Navarra. Mientras que los resultados del roble Ruso fueron bastante interesantes, añadiendo al vino matices más lácteos y cremosos, los resultados del roble Español no fueron tan satisfactorios, porque los taninos fueron más ásperos y astringentes.

 

Simon Arina catando las muestras de varias barricas experimentales.

 

SJE: ¿Qué bosques son los preferidos para vuestras barricas de roble francés?

SA: Allier

SJE: ¿Tenéis vuestro propio tonelero?

SA: No

SJE: ¿Cuántos proveedores de barricas utilizáis?

SA: De 9 a 10 toneleros de Francia y España

SJE:  Me interesan los cambios en el uso de roble a lo largo de esta última década. Pensando en esto : ¿Habéis cambiado vuestras fuentes de roble?
SA: Siendo una bodega joven que empezó en 2002, comenzamos principalmente con el roble Francés y continuamos con los mismos proveedores. Mantenemos esta filosofía hasta hoy.

SJE: ¿Cuando roble nuevo utilizáis y por qué? ¿Estáis utilizando más roble nuevo ahora que antes? ¿Por qué?

SA: Utilizamos roble nuevo para los vinos top así como los vinos tintos de Autor, el Reserva y el Blanco fermentado en Barrica también.  Lo mantenemos así desde los comienzos del proyecto Baigorri  y estamos muy satisfechos con los resultados, de momento no vemos razón para cambiarlo.

SJE: ¿Como varía esto? ¿Utilizáis roble Francés para vuetros vinos caros y roble Americano para vuestros vinos más económicos?

SA: Me remito a la respuesta anterior.

 



SJE: ¿Cuál es el coste de una barrica de roble francés frente al de una Americana?

SA: El roble francés de media costaría 700€ y el Americano 400€.

SJE: Si los meses y años que se dan para la crianza en barrica han cambiado, ¿a qué se debe?

SA: Nosotros aplicamos ligeros cambios en los peridos de crianza según las condiciones de la añada. Es una decisión que es hecha con propiedad y no, como pueda parecer, siguiendo una moda de crianzas cortas en barrica de roble.

SJE: Rioja fue en un tiempo famosa y reconocida por el uso de roble Americano y por sus Gran Reservas con largas crianzas. ¿Por qué crees que alguna gente se ha evolucionado al roble Francés?

SA: Cuando empezamos el proyecto Bodegas BAIGORRI, explícitamente queríamos romper con la tradición de cómo el Rioja se considera que debe ser producido y envejecido. En nuestro caso probamos una estrategia direrente, no solo en cuanto al uso de determinados tipos de roble, sino en la producción del vino en general. El reto para BAIGORRI es mantener la fruta y la elegancia del sabor original de las bayas de uva. Por tanto, las barricas de roble Francés, al ser menos oxidativas, son lo más favorable para el estilo de vino que queremos producir.
Nosotros queremos producir vinos que reflejan las condiciones  viti- y  vinícolas de la Rioja Alavesa y no el origen de robles.

  30.01.2014. 11:03

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